In Bambinos'classroom, space is divided into several areas by low open shelves.
The Montessori Method involves a curriculum of learning that comes from the child's own natural inner guidance and expresses itself in outward behavior as the child's various individual interests are at work.
Supporting this inner plan of nature, the method provides a range of materials to stimulate the child's interest through self-directed activity.
In the first plane of development (0–6), these materials are generally organized into four basic categories: practical life, sensorial, math, and language.
The Montessori classroom may also include other materials and resources to learn cultural subjects, such as geography (map puzzles, globes, cultural suitcases containing country-specific materials), and science, such as biology in naming and organizing plants and animals.
cultural subjects include geography (a child's perception of himself in space), history (a child's perception of himself in time), and science (interactions with the natural world).
The lessons in this category enable the child to care for himself and his environment. Practical life exercises respond to the young child's natural interests to develop physical coordination, builds concentration, self-confidence, motor skills, and care of the environment.
Specific materials provide opportunities for self-help dressing activities, using frames to practice buttoning, zipping, bow tying, lacing, and more.
Other practical life materials include pouring, scooping, and sorting activities, as well as washing a table, arranging flowers and food preparation to develop hand-eye coordination.
Once the child has mastered these activities, he/she is ready to advance to the more complex lessons of sensorial, language, and mathematics.
The sensorial materials provide a range of activities and exercises for children to experience the natural order of the physical environment, including such attributes as size, color, shape, and dimension.
Activities bring clarity to the mind by helping the child sort, arrange, and classify their day-to-day experiences. Abstract concepts of time, imagination, numbers, weight, etc. are unfathomable for a child and the objective of these exercises is to form the basis for abstraction in thought.
Each sensorial activity, therefore, aims to enable a child to isolate a fundamental quality perceived through the five senses such as color, smell, texture, taste, sound, shapes, dimension, temperature, weight, etc.
The five senses; smell, taste, sight, touch, hearing; orient the child in relation to the world. They link the child to the outside world and are receptors for information.
The child is experiencing a Sensitive Period for Refinement of the senses it moves the child’s sensorial development forward. Between 0‐3-year-old, sensorial explorations are done unconsciously ‐ mental classification of organizations. 3‐6 years old sensorial exploration is done at a more conscious level – builds mental distinction of these different attributes that he's surrounded by.
As with other concepts, it is introduced through concrete sensorial materials. To encourage creativity and self-expression, children are taught to write first and then read since writing is one’s own thoughts.
Alphabets are introduced through meaningful games and tracing letters, then progressing to small phonetic words and eventually to complex words and sentences.
The Montessori environment provides experiences to develop writing and reading skills. Children are capable of using sounds to “build” words before they can physically write.
For development writing skills, metal insets provide essential exercises to guide the child's hand in following different outline shapes while using a pencil or pen.
For reading, sandpaper letters provide the basic means for associating the individual letter symbols with their corresponding phonetic sounds.
Children use a moveable alphabet to combine the sounds to form words and sentences, is taught by guiding the child to discover that sounds make words. that allows her to express her knowledge without needing precise control of a pencil.
The young child is introduced to the names of things, and sounds and letters, while the older child may be beginning to read.
The enrichment of language and vocabulary in the classroom happens with the use of good language, meaningful conversations, poetry, storytelling, and encouragement for voicing opinions and purposeful talk.
Advanced grammar work such as parts of speech and sentence analysis is a part of the curriculum for older children.
The child can most effectively construct his mathematical mind in a favorable environment where certain needs are met.
The goal of Montessori education is to provide this favorable and natural environment in which the child's mathematical mind can develop to its greatest potential.
Through his work with specially designed materials and prepared exercises, the child is directly and indirectly introduced to the world of mathematical precision.
The child takes in the order of his environment subconsciously. He has the opportunity to experience mathematical patterns in nature as he explores the outdoor environment. Early work with the prepared activities, particularly those in the Practical Life and Sensorial areas lays a foundation for his future work in mathematics.
Math in a Montessori classroom is also a very sensorial experience, making it interesting, meaningful, and understandable for children. All abstract math concepts – addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication – are first learned through the manipulation of concrete materials.
The child initially counts with the help of beads, then numerals on cards, and then progresses to abstract math exercises that require the child to associate the numerals abstractly in his mind without needing either beads or cards.
The presentations are sequentially layered to make the foundation for math solid thereby paving the way for abstract reasoning, critical thinking, and problem-solving capabilities.
In the Montessori primary classroom, children and adults take care to be gracious toward and courteous of one another. This area of the curriculum encourages respect for oneself, for other members of the community, for the living things in the classroom, and for the environment.
Carrying things carefully, returning them to their place so others may use them, moving gracefully and carefully, using polite and respectful language, showing consideration to others, good table manners, properly introducing oneself, and interrupting politely are all part of the lessons in Grace and Courtesy.
Culture is presented as extensions of the four areas listed above and covers topics such as Geography, Biology, Botany, Zoology, Art, Music, and Dance. Children learn about people and cultures around the world and the lessons related to geography, nature, and other forms of life connect the children to our world and the global community.
The aim here is to inspire the child to respect all human beings, other forms of life, nature, and make them environmentally conscientious. Art, music, poetry, etc. allows the child to enjoy and explore a variety of creative activities.